India has more than 1,15,435 km national highways as per the NHAI report dated 30th June, 2017. Due to increased traffic on road, Indian government is making an effort to widen these existing roads alongside building new ones.
The government set across an ambitious target of building 15,000 kms of roads in 2016-17, but due to traditional methods used for construction and monitoring, only 8,200 kms of roads were built. Indian Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi suggested using drones to monitor the construction and fasten up the construction process as well as maintain transparency. Road Construction Monitoring using Drones.
This article explains in detail, how drones are assisting Infrastructure developer as well as government bodies while planning and construction of roads.
[caption id="attachment_1132" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Pic: Insights about Structures/ROW[/caption]
Listed below are different phases through which a road construction project has to go;
1. Land Acquisition and Liaison
2. Public Utility shifting (includes removal or shifting of any structures or vegetation that obstruct the proposed road)
3. Mobilization of equipment for construction of road and critical structures
[caption id="attachment_1135" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Pic: Continuous Display of Chainage, Easting and Northing, Other important information[/caption]
Land Acquisition and Liaison:
It is one of the most preliminary and crucial step in the construction of roads, as the government needs to acquire neighboring lands if they belong to private entities or public. Land disputes often hinder the construction of roads and put projects behind schedule till the dispute is resolved. If government/private entity has an early access to all the information regarding the ownership of land, they can make an attempt to resolve it.
Aerial videography of roads using Drones can solve this issue by providing insights on the acquired and unacquired lands. It can help in clearing out the bottlenecks and keep the project on schedule by providing clear and concise information as on date.
[caption id="attachment_1133" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Pic: Religious Structures present in proposed ROW[/caption]
Public Utility shifting:
After land acquisition and Liaisoning, companies need information about different utilities including electric poles, schools, public toilets, public hospitals, vegetation, religious structures, etc. If Project managers have an early access to all these information, they can make well informed decisions on whether to shift those utilities or demolish them.
Drone Survey data is integrated with geographical co-ordinates and corresponding chainage, providing accurate location of important structures. This helps in effective communication between people working onsite as well as offsite.
[caption id="attachment_1131" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Pic: Continuous road monitoring for maintaining transparency[/caption]
Mobilization of equipments:
After the planning phase, comes the execution phase where the equipments are deployed onsite and the construction begins. Staying up to date with true ground realities of the project can be a real challenge.
Quarterly aerial videography of the entire stretch can provide timely updates on progress. Any bottlenecks that hamper the progress can immediately be solved once the project manager has the data. This saves the project manager's valuable time which he would have otherwise spent visiting the site.
In addition to monitoring the progress, Project managers can forecast any potential threat to the employees working onsite.
Using a combination of aerial videography and aerial survey, project managers can also understand the inaccessible areas and recognize any potential hazard that may occur on field. Even live telecast can be provided so that they can assess the information in real time to plan for some crucial tasks.
[caption id="attachment_1134" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Pic: Monitoring of a road widening project in Jharkhand[/caption]
To summarize, the biggest advantage of drone survey is that you get one stop solution to plan and execute your project from scratch, giving you all the information you need.
FASTER AND AT A LOWER COST.
Project managers can manage subcontractors and keep stake holders informed on the project. Drone Data provides transparency stating the ground realities and makes communication more effective.
Also check out our article on Drone Data Outputs: https://pigeonis.in/uav-surveying-and-mapping/
Contact Pigeon Innovative Solutions for changing the way you visualize the site, be modernized and work less on ground. We make drones do the work. Be a part of Droneage. UAV Surveying and Mapping. We provide our services all over India and anywhere in the world.
India has more than 1,15,435 km national highways as per the NHAI report dated 30th June, 2017. Due to increased traffic on road, Indian government is making an effort to widen these existing roads al
Drones are now able to address some of the unique challenges faced while surveying an area. Drones can collect land survey data at a much faster rate and with a much higher degree of accuracy than the traditional land-based surveyors. This helps speed up the surveying process and ensures that the actual project development work will start on time.Pigeon Innovative Solutions, a drone survey company in India provides a wide range of survey outputs such as Orthomosaics, Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Digital Surface Models (DSM), Digital Terrain Modeling (DTM), Contour Lines, 3D Models and more. Here is a small description about these drone data outputsOrthomosaics
[caption id="attachment_878" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Orthomosaic[/caption]
Orthomosaic maps are generated from large number of image dataset collected using drone flights. These image dataset are then processed for georeferencing and mosaicing into a single image layer. Orthomosaic maps made from aerial drone data shows great details because of the high quality images captured at low altitude. Area, distance and other planimetric measurements can be easily collected from an orthomosaic map.Digital Elevation Models (DEM)
[caption id="attachment_971" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Digital Elevation Model[/caption]
A Digital Elevation Models (DEM) is a data file consisting of digital representation of elevation information in a colour code (raster) or grid form. DEM are prominent for calculation, manipulation and further analysis of an area and generally used to analyse the elevation of an area. High spots, low spots, drainage issues and general grade can quickly and easily be observed. The strength to analyse an area using DEM is especially helpful in tracking and documenting changes during the development of an area.Digital Surface Models (DSM)
[caption id="attachment_979" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Digital-Surface-Model-DSM[/caption]
Digital Surface Models (DSM) measure the height values of the first surface on the ground, which includes buildings, roads and vegetations, as well as natural terrain feature on the Earth’s surface. DSM is generated from linear array images by impending off-colour to fine grade solution with a combination of several image matching algorithms and automatic quality control. DSM is specially useful in 3D modelling and applicable in smart city planning, urban planning, telecommunications, aviation and forestry.
Digital Terrain Models (DTM)
[caption id="attachment_981" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Digital Terrain Model DTM[/caption]
The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is an uneven grid of 3D points (x,y,z) with the density of the grid varying dependent upon the terrain, which is stored in digital form. DTM are normally derived from Digital Surface Models (DSM) by digitally extracting vegetation, building or other man-made features. DTM can be used to model water flow, documentation, transportation system planning or geological applications.Contour Lines
[caption id="attachment_972" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Contour-lines[/caption]
Contour Lines are used to know the elevations of an area. These are lines connecting points of similar elevation, which may be height or it can be any other measure that defines topography in a lines. Contour lines are used to understand the shape of surface, water flow, estimate valley depth and steepness. Click Here to read our article on Contour Lines.3D Models
[caption id="attachment_976" align="aligncenter" width="474"] Realistic 3D Model[/caption]
3D Models are created using imagery from Orthomosaic and elevation from DEM. After combining these datasets, a virtual 3D Model is generated which can be visualised and conclusions can be made. 3D Models are useful in Surveying or Mapping of a site which is difficult to access like forest, mountains, forts, ghats. Real time 3D models are also generated for heritage monuments, forts, temples, palaces, archeological sites, statues, etc.
Read about our recent article on "Road Construction Monitoring using Drones"
Contact Pigeon Innovative Solutions for changing the way you carry out site survey, be modernised and work less on ground. We make drones work. Be a part of Droneage. UAV Surveying and Mapping. We provide our services all over India and anywhere in the world.
Drones are now able to address some of the unique challenges faced while surveying an area. Drones can collect land survey data at a much faster rate and with a much higher degree of accuracy than the
Photographs From An Elevated Position
Aerial photography involves capturing photographs by using airborne cameras. In other words, it involves taking the photographs of the ground from a direct down position or elevated position. In this photography, the camera is not supported by any ground-based structure. In general, aerial photography is the method of taking pictures with a 'bird's eye' view of the ground below from an airplane, or from a satellite or rocket and it is a common method of reconnoitering land features.
Aerial photography is widely used at the time of war to guide the intrusions through the land. Besides from the military operations, this photography also loosens the geological irregularities and can pinpoint the international boundaries in an easy manner with conviction. Aerial photography in India is offered by many aerial photography companies.
Benefits of Aerial Photography
This photography is suitable for studying the topography of a region. With this photography, the valleys, mountains, terrain and river systems are easily pictured. It helps to select the sites of important installations like hydroelectric power projects or irrigation channel. This type of photography is also used by real estate developers whose area of operation is usually very extensive. These aerial photographs are used for promotional works also.
Some of the Geological Survey companies have done amazing work with the help of aerial photography by classifying various areas based on terrain type, altitude, and the nature of sub-soil, resources and vegetation etc. In addition to this, this photography is used in GIS that deals with charts and maps. This photography also gives benefits to a number of state and federal governments while planning or relocating satellite townships as well as restructuring existing ones.
Also, natural calamities like flood, timber fire, earthquake, tornado and volcanic eruptions can be pictured or photographed with this aerial photography only. If such a condition happens, government make use of aerial photography to determine the scale of damage. This also used for space photographs. This photography is used as a method of landscape studies, particularly in researches and archaeology. Drone survey companies in India provide this type of services to the people. Photographs are taken in two different forms in aerial photography and both have different applications and uses. The two different forms of aerial photography are oblique and vertical.
The oblique photographs are taken at an angle of 45 degrees. These photographs are taken manually at any degree and give the best view of a landscape. Images taken with oblique are generally used in archaeology to take a broad context of a feature and the area around it. These images are taken from small helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft and it is suitable for monitoring the erosion of monuments and features of many decades.
This form involves taking photographs straight down over a landscape. This form is a plan view, therefore, it has no angle to distort the image. This form of aerial photography provides a good impression of the differences in the elevation of land and in this form the photographs are taken at regular heights. These images are used to generate Orthomosaic maps, Digital Elevation Models, Reflectance maps, etc
Contact Pigeon Innovative Solutions for Drone photography, Drone Survey, 3D Modelling, etc anywhere in India or world. Get your Quote now.
Photographs From An Elevated Position
Aerial photography involves capturing photographs by using airborne cameras. In other words, it involves taking the photographs of the ground from a direct dow
What are Contour lines?Contour lines are generated by connecting all the points of similar elevation together. These lines are drawn on a plan of a particular terrain to understand the nature of surface, identify cut fill volume, study water flow characteristics, estimate valley depth and steepness. Contour lines form a smooth curve of same elevation points. Contour lines are also called as isohypse, isoline, isopleth, or isarithm.
[caption id="attachment_862" align="aligncenter" width="549"]Figure: Contour line illustration[/caption]
Contour maps are generated of Hill Ranges, Valleys, Mountains, Large lands, Agricultural fields, Farmlands, Forests, Archaeological sites, Water bodies, etc.What does contour lines indicate?
-: Concentric closed contour lines with increasing values towards center indicates a hill or elevated terrain
-: Concentric closed contour lines with decreasing values towards center indicates a pond or water body
-: Contour lines with U-shape convexity indicates ridge
-: Contour lines with V-shaped convexity indicates valley
-: When contour lines cross each other, it indicates existence of overhanging cliffs or a cave
-: When contour lines are meeting in some portion, it indicates existence of a vertical cliff
What are the uses of Contour lines?Contour lines are generally used to understand the terrain profile for multiple uses as follows:
-: Depth of cutting and filling is decided from a contour map profile path, when desired level or elevation of road/railway is known
-: Minimizing and balancing earthworks by deciding the routes of the railway, road, canal or sewer lines using contour lines
-: Catchment area and quantity of water flow at any point of nalla or river is found out using contour lines
-: In agricultural work, contours maps are useful as guide lines in planning of trees on hilly terrain and also land improvement project. In addition to this, drainage system is also conveniently planned with contour maps
-: Initial feasibility study for Wind power or Solar Power project, for studying the terrain profile
-: Initial feasibility study for Ropeway construction, a survey needs to be done to analyse the terrain for desired ropeway, cable car path
-: Volumetric calculations are performed as required for extracting the volume of rocks, gravel of a mountain and estimate it's total value. Hence, Effective Cost estimates is made available with the help of the contour maps
-: Contour lines are also benificial for Mining companies especially for calculating the volume of stocks
-: Archaeological surveyors are using contour lines to get insights about history
Figure: Contour line of small elevated area
How are contour lines made using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or Drone?
Drones are used to collect the data in the form of High quality images. The complete captured data is aligned by aerial triangulation. The aligned data is then ortho-rectified and georeferenced using the GCP information. Subsequently, the final Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Contour lines at required elevation change are generated.Want to carry out contour line survey at your site? Call Pigeonis at +91-9004329048 or rather just drop your requirements at firstname.lastname@example.org
What are Contour lines?
Contour lines are generated by connecting all the points of similar elevation together. These lines are drawn on a plan of a particular terrain to understand the nature of s